Comparison Between Egyptian and Mesopotamian Religions and Beliefs!

The religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians were the dominating influence in the development of their culture. The Egyptian faith was based on a collection of ancient myths, nature worship, and innumerable deities. Sumerian lives were spent serving the gods in the form of man-made statues. There was no organized set of gods; each city-state had its own patrons, temples, and priest-kings. The Sumerians were probably the first to write down their beliefs, which were the inspiration for much of later Mesopotamian mythology, religion, and astrology. Sumerians believed that the universe consisted of a flat disk enclosed by a tin dome. While the Mesopotamian’s didn’t have anything quit to scale with the pyramids, they did use and build ziggurats for religious purposes.

Both civilizations were centered on religion. Egypt believed in many gods. The gods Mesopotamia believed in tended to be absolute rulers to whom the people owed total devotion. In both civilizations religious leaders were given very high status and held in high regard. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt are two religions that believed in monotheism. Both Egypt and Mesopotamia were polytheistic, that is, they believed their worlds were ruled by more than one god. Both civilizations believed that the gods created them. Both cultures also believed that they themselves were created for the purpose of serving their gods. Both worshipers took their names from the numerous gods and the cults that honored the deities, and priests in both religions were no special clothes, and made daily offering in the temples and held annual festivals open to public.

Mesopotamian religion saw humans as the servants of the gods, who had to be appeased for protection. Egyptians believed that the gods created all humans but were also controlled by the principle of maat, or order. Unlike followers of Mesopotamian religion, the Egyptians had a strong belief in the afterlife, which they expressed by building elaborate tombs such as the pyramids. The Sumerian afterlife involved a descent into a gloomy netherworld to spend eternity in a wretched existence as a Gidim (ghost). Egyptians believed that their gods had created Egypt as a sort of refuge of good and order in a world filled with chaos and disorder. The major god for much of Mesopotamia was the sky god Enlil; later th e worship of Enlil was replaced by the worship of the Babylonian god Marduk. For Egyptians, Amen-Ra was the most powerful deity, chief of the pantheon. Statues of winged bulls were a protective symbol related to the god Sin Mesopotamia, while the ankh, a kind of cross with a loop at the top, was a prominent representation of life in ancient Egypt. The Enuma Elish tells the Mesopotamian story of creation and explains how Marduk became the chief of the gods. The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a guide for the dead, setting out magic spells and charms to be used to pass judgment in the afterlife. Ancient Nippur was the site of the chief temple to Enlil, while Babylon was the location of Marduk’s sanctuary. Thebes and the temple complex of Karnak were home to the worship of Amen- Ra. In the modern world the remains of these early religions can be seen in Egypt’s pyramids, tombs for the pharaohs, and in Mesopotamia’s ziggurats, temples to the gods. The New Year’s Festival was a major event in Mesopotamian religion, while Egypt’s most important festival was Opet. Because Egypt was the “gift of the Nile” and generally prosperous and harmonious, Egyptian gods tended to reflect a positive religion with an emphasis on a positive afterlife. In contrast, Mesopotamian religion was bleak and gloomy. Ancient Mesopotamian prayers demonstrate the lack of relationships with gods and goddesses who viewed humans with suspicion and frequently sent calamities to remind everyone of their humanity. Such was the message found in the Gilgamesh Epic.

Although the religions of both civilizations shared many similarities, the differences were vast. The most notable ones are the importance and belief of afterlife and the relationship between Gods. Because of these differences, we believe, the civilizations were different because in early times, civilizations revolved around their beliefs and values but unfortunately, there was an end to these great civilizations.

3 Criteria For Goals That Will Truly Motivate Your Team

I'm sure all of us are looking for ways to inspire our athletes to achieve their highest potential. And I'm sure all of us agree that goal setting is an integral part to any successful season. Based on his TEDtalk, "Why We Do What We Do" , Tony Robbins gives us a "map" to properly motivating our teams. First, we have to give each individual a role on the team. Then we have to find out how to meet their emotional needs. Finally, we give them the tools to make their team experience positive. Read on to find out how!

3 Things Coaches Should Understand in Order to Motivate Our Teams

Three questions. Robbins says that every decision we make (Will I go all out in practice? Will I try something new and risk looking bad until I master the skill?) Requires us to answer three questions. He calls them the Three Decisions of Destiny.

The first question is "What am I going to focus on?". Let's use "will I go all out in practice?" as our sample. We have to get our players to focus on how their effort will benefit their team and help the team get closer to accomplishing their goals. So rather than focusing on the pain that they feel in working hard, their attention is on doing their part for the team.

The second question is "What does it mean?". Going all out in practice means verbally supporting one's teams, giving complete physical effort, and being willing to do whatever they're asked by the coach.

The third and final question is "What am I going to do?". To make sure they go all out each practice, they will eat healthily, get plenty of sleep, and remain focused on their sport during practice times.

6 Human Needs.

We all are motivated by these six emotions / needs / beliefs … it's the coach's job to find out what button to push for each student-athlete.

The 1st need is certainty. There are some things that our players need to know without a doubt: For example, the coach is knowledgeable, fair, and caring.

The 2nd need is uncertainty. I know that sees to contradict the first, but I do not think it does. While some things should be set in stone, others like playing time and the starting lineup should not be certain … otherwise our starters will become complacent and the non-starters will be apathetic.

The 3rd need is critical significance. Our teams should have a compelling reason for coming to the gym every day … and it's our job to give it to them.

The 4th need is connection and love. We all want to feel like we belong to something special and that there are folks out there who care about us.

The 5th need is growth. If a player feels that they were not given the opportunity to get better (with skill, with leadership, with self-awareness), why come to practice every day?

The 6th need is the ability to contribute beyond ourselves. Whether it's team community service, sacrificing personal goals to help the team win a significant victory, or challenging your seniors to leave their mark on the team … we've got to give our players the ability to make a difference.

Becoming influential. So we're still using our sample question, "will I go all out in practice?", As the example for this goal setting technique. In this final step of the motivation process, we help our athletes create a positive situation for themselves. We should ask them what their target is … meaning what do they hope to accomplish by going all out in practice (respect from peers, etc.)? Next is to find out what their belief system is … will they stoop to gossiping and backbiting a team in order to get to "connection and love"? Finally, we have to find out what fuels each athlete. Robbins says that each of us has a dominant human need (certyty, critical significance, etc.) and the player's goal has to feed that need.

Check out the video if you get a chance and see if you can put your own sports spin on things … it's well worth the watch!

Common Questions in the IELTS Writing Exam Under the Academic Module

It has always been said that preparation is the key to any endeavor. Indeed, success is possible when thorough planning and preparing have been considered well. For many Filipinos planning to work and study abroad, the first thing they have to do is to prepare their requirements and one of these is by taking an English competency test – the IELTS or the International English Language Testing System exam.

Due to the test’s popularity, hundreds of Filipinos nowadays are looking for IELTS review centers to get training and courses. IELTS review centers have created class courses that enhance the examinees’ English skills in short span of time. Moreover, Filipino examinees consider IELTS review centers a good venue to learn skills and strategies they need, most especially in the writing section. Writing is one section most examinees consider challenging; hence, they need more practice in this area.

The IELTS writing section is composed of two different tasks. The first task asks the candidate to write a 150-word essay describing a process or compare and contrast data presented in graphs, charts and tables. The topics that are covered in this section are very varied. There are graphs representing age differences in countries, spending habits in shopping, or internet activities of particular age groups. In process or chart data, candidates are presented with processes like making cement, picture booth process, precipitation, or charts of deforestation. Examinees need to understand the graph or the diagrams well to be able to interpret it appropriately.

The second task of the IELTS writing section asks the candidates to write a 250-word essay in 40 minutes. Examinees are tasked to give their opinion on a given topic or statement. The topics that are usually given in the second tasks are topics about old age, globalization, science and technology, environmental issues, lifestyle, education issues, and social issues. Examinees need to be familiar with these topics. Questions on these topics are not too technical so candidates do not need to read a lot on these topics.

Coming up with a good essay on both tasks might be a little difficult at first. However, with constant practice in writing essays, candidates will be able to develop their skills in improving their writing styles. Moreover, coaches in IELTS review centers constantly give feedbacks and comments to their trainees’ essays. They will guide examinees step-by-step until their essays become effective and appropriate for the IELTS examination. Indeed, being part of an IELTS review center creates great advantages one can experience.

Ezine Advertising Myths

The freedom of speech, the lack of education plus the others' herd instinct create some monsters … the myths. It is said "A fool throws a stone into a lake and twenty wise men can not stop the ripples."

Let's see what some ezine advertising "experts" discovered and many other followers spread everywhere they could …

1) Ezine Advertising Does not Work Anymore

Article marketing does not work. PPC does not work. Ezine advertising does not work. Actually for some people nothing works. You know why? They are busy spreading rumors instead of investing in their education.

Well, it's not our problem what other people are doing, but do you know what the real problem is? There is no one "up there" to force us to wear badges.

Whaaat? Badges?

For example, how nice would it be if an "I'm dumb" badge were added to someone who tries to drive with the tank of his brand new Mercedes empty? When that person will tell you, "Hey, those new cars are good for nothing", you'll take a look at his badge, say politely "I see …" and then you'll run away quickly without further telling all your friends the "bad" news you've just heard …

2) The Longer the Waiting Time, the Better the Ezine

If the waiting time for publishing your solo ad is long (over 4-6 weeks), you found a gem. If you read articles about advertising in ezines it's impossible to notice this "wonderful" idea.

Let me tell you something quickly …

During the last 6 months, the waiting time for solo ads to be published in my own "Ezine Advertising Info Newsletter" was at least 2 months. And you know what? My newsletter is NOT a gem. I wish it were, but it's not.

By the way, I just checked something … I'm not wearing any embarrassing bassing ;-)

3) The Higher the Number of Subscribers, the Better the Advertisers' Result

First of all, the result depends very much on you. Therefore, if you promote a poor quality product, if your landing page is not good, if your ad copy the same, it does not matter the number of subscribers. You will fail anyway.

On the other hand, most of the times a very big number of subscribers hides something: the list is stale, or email addresses are purchased leads (a big No-No), or even the number of subscribers is fake.

Let me quote from the most recent report issued by a reputable email marketing company: " Messages delivered to small and medium lists have far greater open and click rates than messages delivered to lists containing 1000 or more subscribers. and click rates, but mailings to smaller lists may be targeted better, contain more relevant content or have more recent subscribers. "(MailerMailer, Email Marketing Metrics Report issued on May 2009)

This report is not based on beliefs or amateur tiny size tests, but on the analysis of over 300 million messages across 21 industries sent through MailerMailer between July 1st and December 21, 2008.

There are many other ezine advertising myths (such as "Buy only solo ads and top sponsor ads.)") But I did not plan to post a novel here …

To Your Success, Whatever You Do!
Adrian Jock